Bagram: Last US and Nato forces leave key Afghanistan base

From 9/11, to intense fighting on the ground, and now full withdrawal of US-led forces, here’s what happened.

9/11

11 September 2001

Al-Qaeda, led by Osama Bin Laden in Afghanistan, carries out the largest terror attack ever conducted on US soil.

Image caption The World Trade Centre is reduced to rubble

Image copyright by Getty

Four commercial airliners are hijacked. Two are flown into the World Trade Centre in New York, which collapses. One hits the Pentagon building in Washington, and one crashes into a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people are killed.

First air strikes

7 October 2001

A US-led coalition bombs Taliban and al-Qaeda facilities in Afghanistan. Targets include Kabul, Kandahar and Jalalabad. The Taliban refuse to hand over Bin Laden. Their air defences and small fleet of fighter aircraft are destroyed.

Fall of Kabul

13 November 2001

The Northern Alliance, a group of anti-Taliban rebels backed by coalition forces, enters Kabul as the Taliban flee the city.

Image caption Coalition-backed Northern Alliance fighters ride tanks into Kabul as the Taliban retreat

Image copyright by Getty

By the 13 November 2001, all Taliban have either fled or been neutralised. Other cities quickly fall.

New constitution

26 January 2004

After protracted negotiations at a “loya jirga” or grand assembly, the new Afghan constitution is signed into law. The constitution paves the way for presidential elections in October 2004.

Hamid Karzai becomes president

7 December 2004

Image caption Hamid Karzai led anti-Taliban groups around Kandahar before becoming president

Image copyright by Getty

Hamid Karzai, the leader of the Popalzai Durrani tribe, becomes the first president under the new constitution. He serves two five-year terms as president.

UK troops deployed to Helmand

May 2006

British troops arrive in Helmand province, a Taliban stronghold in the south of the country.

Image caption Soldiers of the Parachute Regiment lead the first UK deployment to Helmand

Image copyright by Getty

Their initial mission is to support reconstruction projects, but they are quickly drawn into combat operations. More than 450 British troops lose their lives in Afghanistan over the course of the conflict.

Obama’s surge

17 February 2009

US President Barack Obama approves a major increase in the number of troops sent to Afghanistan. At their peak, they number about 140,000.

Image caption US troops in intense combat operations in the south of the country

Image copyright by Getty

The so-called “surge” is modelled on US strategy in Iraq where US forces focussed on protecting the civilian population as well as killing insurgent fighters.

Osama Bin Laden killed

2 May 2011

Image caption Bin Laden is traced to a compound located less than a mile from a Pakistani military academy

Image copyright by Getty

The leader of al-Qaeda is killed in an assault by US Navy Seals on a compound in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Bin Laden’s body is removed and buried at sea. The operation ends a 10-year hunt led by the CIA.  The confirmation that Bin Laden had been living on Pakistani soil fuels accusations in the US that Pakistan is an unreliable ally in the war on terror.

Death of Mullah Omar

23 April 2013

The founder of the Taliban, Mullah Mohammed Omar, dies. His death is kept secret for more than two years.

Image caption The Taliban leader is believed to have suffered a shrapnel wound to his right eye in the 1980s

Image copyright by EPA

According to Afghan intelligence, Mullah Omar dies of health problems at a hospital in the Pakistani city of Karachi. Pakistan denies that he was in the country.

Nato ends combat operations

28 December 2014

At a ceremony in Kabul, Nato ends its combat operations in Afghanistan. With the surge now over, the US withdraws thousands of troops.  Most of those who remain focus on training and supporting the Afghan security forces.

Taliban resurgence

2015

The Taliban launch a series of suicide attacks, car bombings and other assaults. The parliament building in Kabul, and the city of Kunduz are attacked. Islamic State militants begin operations in Afghanistan.

Image caption Kabul’s international airport is struck on 10 August 2015

Image copyright by Getty

Death toll announcement

25 January 2019

Afghan President Ashraf Ghani says more than 45,000 members of his country’s security forces have been killed since he became leader in 2014. The figure is far higher than previously thought.

US signs deal with Taliban

29 February 2020

The US and the Taliban sign an “agreement for bringing peace” to Afghanistan, in Doha, Qatar. The US and Nato allies agree to withdraw all troops within 14 months if the militants uphold the deal.

Image caption The deal lays out a timetable for full withdrawal

Image copyright by Getty

Date for final withdrawal

11 September 2021

US forces are scheduled to withdraw from Afghanistan by 11 September 2021, exactly 20 years since 9/11. There are strong indications that the withdrawal may be complete before the official deadline.

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next?”},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”The top US commander in Afghanistan, General Scott Miller, met President Ashraf Ghani to discuss “continued US assistance and co-operation”, the president’s office said in a tweet on Friday.”,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”The top US commander in Afghanistan, General Scott Miller, met President Ashraf Ghani to discuss “continued US assistance and co-operation”, the president’s office said in a tweet on Friday.”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”About 650 US troops are expected to remain in the country, the Associated Press reports, to provide protection for diplomats and help guard Kabul’s international airport, a vital transport hub for the landlocked country. “,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”About 650 US troops are expected to remain in the country, the Associated Press reports, to provide protection for diplomats 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Two are flown into the World Trade Centre in New York, which collapses. One hits the Pentagon building in Washington, and one crashes into a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people are killed.”,”timeline__element_6-header”:”First air strikes”,”timeline__element_6-date”:”7 October 2001″,”text_7-value”:”A US-led coalition bombs Taliban and al-Qaeda facilities in Afghanistan. Targets include Kabul, Kandahar and Jalalabad. The Taliban refuse to hand over Bin Laden. Their air defences and small fleet of fighter aircraft are destroyed.”,”timeline__element_8-header”:”u003cstrong> u003c/strong>Fall of Kabul”,”timeline__element_8-date”:”13 November 2001″,”text_9-value”:”The Northern Alliance, a group of anti-Taliban rebels backed by coalition forces, enters Kabul as the Taliban flee the city.”,”figure_10-caption”:”Coalition-backed Northern Alliance fighters ride tanks into Kabul as the Taliban retreat”,”figure_10-attribution”:”Getty”,”figure_10-src”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/3DEE/production/_119145851_gettyimages_na.jpg”,”text_11-value”:”By the 13 November 2001, all Taliban have either fled or been neutralised. Other cities quickly fall.”,”timeline__element_12-header”:”u003cstrong> u003c/strong>New constitution”,”timeline__element_12-date”:”26 January 2004″,”text_13-value”:”After protracted negotiations at a “loya jirga” or grand assembly, the new Afghan constitution is signed into law. The constitution paves the way for presidential elections in October 2004.”,”timeline__element_14-header”:”Hamid Karzai becomes president”,”timeline__element_14-date”:”7 December 2004″,”figure_15-caption”:”Hamid Karzai led anti-Taliban groups around Kandahar before becoming president”,”figure_15-attribution”:”Getty”,”figure_15-src”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/8C0E/production/_119145853_gettyimages_karzai.jpg”,”text_16-value”:”Hamid Karzai, the leader of the Popalzai Durrani tribe, becomes the first president under the new constitution. He serves two five-year terms as president.”,”timeline__element_17-header”:”UK troops deployed to Helmand”,”timeline__element_17-date”:”May 2006″,”text_18-value”:”British troops arrive in Helmand province, a Taliban stronghold in the south of the country.”,”figure_19-caption”:”Soldiers of the Parachute Regiment lead the first UK deployment to Helmand”,”figure_19-attribution”:”Getty”,”figure_19-src”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/B31E/production/_119145854_gettyimages-154419188.jpg”,”text_20-value”:”Their initial mission is to support reconstruction projects, but they are quickly drawn into combat operations. More than 450 British troops lose their lives in Afghanistan over the course of the conflict.”,”timeline__element_21-header”:”Obama’s surge”,”timeline__element_21-date”:”17 February 2009″,”text_22-value”:”US President Barack Obama approves a major increase in the number of troops sent to Afghanistan. At their peak, they number about 140,000.”,”figure_23-caption”:”US troops in intense combat operations in the south of the country”,”figure_23-attribution”:”Getty”,”figure_23-src”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/DA2E/production/_119145855_gettyimages_surge.jpg”,”text_24-value”:”The so-called “surge” is modelled on US strategy in Iraq where US forces focussed on protecting the civilian population as well as killing insurgent fighters.”,”timeline__element_25-header”:”Osama Bin Laden killed”,”timeline__element_25-date”:”2 May 2011″,”figure_26-caption”:”Bin Laden is traced to a compound located less than a mile from a Pakistani military academy”,”figure_26-attribution”:”Getty”,”figure_26-src”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/1013E/production/_119145856_obl_gettypng.png”,”text_27-value”:”The leader of al-Qaeda is killed in an assault by US Navy Seals on a compound in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Bin Laden’s body is removed and buried at sea. The operation ends a 10-year hunt led by the CIA.  The confirmation that Bin Laden had been living on Pakistani soil fuels accusations in the US that Pakistan is an unreliable ally in the war on terror.”,”timeline__element_28-header”:”Death of Mullah Omar”,”timeline__element_28-date”:”23 April 2013″,”text_29-value”:”The founder of the Taliban, Mullah Mohammed Omar, dies. His death is kept secret for more than two years.”,”figure_30-caption”:”The Taliban leader is believed to have suffered a shrapnel wound to his right eye in the 1980s”,”figure_30-attribution”:”EPA”,”figure_30-src”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/1284E/production/_119145857_omar_epa_2.png”,”text_31-value”:”According to Afghan intelligence, Mullah Omar dies of health problems at a hospital in the Pakistani city of Karachi. Pakistan denies that he was in the country.”,”timeline__element_32-header”:”Nato ends combat operations”,”timeline__element_32-date”:”28 December 2014″,”text_33-value”:”At a ceremony in Kabul, Nato ends its combat operations in Afghanistan. With the surge now over, the US withdraws thousands of troops.  Most of those who remain focus on training and supporting the Afghan security forces.”,”timeline__element_34-header”:”Taliban resurgence”,”timeline__element_34-date”:”2015″,”text_35-value”:”The Taliban launch a series of suicide attacks, car bombings and other assaults. The parliament building in Kabul, and the city of Kunduz are attacked. Islamic State militants begin operations in Afghanistan.”,”figure_36-caption”:”Kabul’s international airport is struck on 10 August 2015″,”figure_36-attribution”:”Getty”,”figure_36-src”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/10210/production/_119146066_gettyimages-flames.jpg”,”timeline__element_37-header”:”Death toll announcement”,”timeline__element_37-date”:”25 January 2019″,”text_38-value”:”Afghan President Ashraf Ghani says more than 45,000 members of his country’s security forces have been killed since he became leader in 2014. The figure is far higher than previously thought.”,”timeline__element_39-header”:”US signs deal with Taliban”,”timeline__element_39-date”:”29 February 2020″,”text_40-value”:”The US and the Taliban sign an “agreement for bringing peace” to Afghanistan, in Doha, Qatar. The US and Nato allies agree to withdraw all troops within 14 months if the militants uphold the deal.”,”figure_41-caption”:”The deal lays out a timetable for full withdrawal”,”figure_41-attribution”:”Getty”,”figure_41-src”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/DB00/production/_119146065_gettyimages_qatar.jpg”,”timeline__element_42-header”:”Date for final withdrawal”,”timeline__element_42-date”:”11 September 2021″,”text_43-value”:”US forces are scheduled to withdraw from Afghanistan by 11 September 2021, exactly 20 years since 9/11. 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rel=”stylesheet” href=”https://news.files.bbci.co.uk/include/vjeastasia/800-timeline_on_slack/assets/embed/css/inline.css??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″>nu003cdiv id=”responsive-embed-vjeastasia-800-timeline_on_slack-newsspec-31092″ class=”bbc-news-vj-embed-wrapper”>n u003cdiv id=”responsive-embed-vjeastasia-800-timeline_on_slack-newsspec-31092-core-content”>n u003cdiv class=”gel-wrap”>n u003cdiv class=”gel-layout”>n u003cdiv class=”gel-layout__item gel-1/1″>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline__container “>n u003ch2 class=”timeline__main-header”>u003cstrong>Twenty years of conflict in Afghanistan – what happened when?u003c/strong>u003c/h2>n u003cp>n u003cspan class=”gel-body-copy”>From 9/11, to intense fighting on the ground, and now full withdrawal of US-led forces, here’s what happened.u003c/span>n u003c/p>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__content”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__sideline timeline__sideline–bg”>u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n 9/11n u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>11 September 2001u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>Al-Qaeda, led by Osama Bin Laden in Afghanistan, carries out the largest terror attack ever conducted on US soil.u003c/p>n n n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/16DE/production/_119145850_gettyimages_wtc.jpg??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”The World Trade Centre is reduced to rubble” />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> The World Trade Centre is reduced to rubblen u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> Gettyn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n n u003cp>Four commercial airliners are hijacked. Two are flown into the World Trade Centre in New York, which collapses. One hits the Pentagon building in Washington, and one crashes into a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people are killed.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n First air strikesn u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>7 October 2001u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>A US-led coalition bombs Taliban and al-Qaeda facilities in Afghanistan. Targets include Kabul, Kandahar and Jalalabad. The Taliban refuse to hand over Bin Laden. Their air defences and small fleet of fighter aircraft are destroyed.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n u003cstrong> u003c/strong>Fall of Kabuln u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>13 November 2001u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>The Northern Alliance, a group of anti-Taliban rebels backed by coalition forces, enters Kabul as the Taliban flee the city.u003c/p>n n n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/3DEE/production/_119145851_gettyimages_na.jpg??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”Coalition-backed Northern Alliance fighters ride tanks into Kabul as the Taliban retreat” />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> Coalition-backed Northern Alliance fighters ride tanks into Kabul as the Taliban retreatn u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> Gettyn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n n u003cp>By the 13 November 2001, all Taliban have either fled or been neutralised. Other cities quickly fall.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n u003cstrong> u003c/strong>New constitutionn u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>26 January 2004u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>After protracted negotiations at a “loya jirga” or grand assembly, the new Afghan constitution is signed into law. The constitution paves the way for presidential elections in October 2004.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n Hamid Karzai becomes presidentn u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>7 December 2004u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/8C0E/production/_119145853_gettyimages_karzai.jpg??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”Hamid Karzai led anti-Taliban groups around Kandahar before becoming president” />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> Hamid Karzai led anti-Taliban groups around Kandahar before becoming presidentn u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> Gettyn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n n u003cp>Hamid Karzai, the leader of the Popalzai Durrani tribe, becomes the first president under the new constitution. He serves two five-year terms as president.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n UK troops deployed to Helmandn u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>May 2006u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>British troops arrive in Helmand province, a Taliban stronghold in the south of the country.u003c/p>n n n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/B31E/production/_119145854_gettyimages-154419188.jpg??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”Soldiers of the Parachute Regiment lead the first UK deployment to Helmand” />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> Soldiers of the Parachute Regiment lead the first UK deployment to Helmandn u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> Gettyn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n n u003cp>Their initial mission is to support reconstruction projects, but they are quickly drawn into combat operations. More than 450 British troops lose their lives in Afghanistan over the course of the conflict.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n Obama’s surgen u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>17 February 2009u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>US President Barack Obama approves a major increase in the number of troops sent to Afghanistan. At their peak, they number about 140,000.u003c/p>n n n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/DA2E/production/_119145855_gettyimages_surge.jpg??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”US troops in intense combat operations in the south of the country” />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> US troops in intense combat operations in the south of the countryn u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> Gettyn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n n u003cp>The so-called “surge” is modelled on US strategy in Iraq where US forces focussed on protecting the civilian population as well as killing insurgent fighters.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n Osama Bin Laden killedn u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>2 May 2011u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/1013E/production/_119145856_obl_gettypng.png??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”Bin Laden is traced to a compound located less than a mile from a Pakistani military academy” />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> Bin Laden is traced to a compound located less than a mile from a Pakistani military academyn u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> Gettyn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n n u003cp>The leader of al-Qaeda is killed in an assault by US Navy Seals on a compound in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Bin Laden’s body is removed and buried at sea. The operation ends a 10-year hunt led by the CIA.  The confirmation that Bin Laden had been living on Pakistani soil fuels accusations in the US that Pakistan is an unreliable ally in the war on terror.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n Death of Mullah Omarn u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>23 April 2013u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>The founder of the Taliban, Mullah Mohammed Omar, dies. His death is kept secret for more than two years.u003c/p>n n n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/1284E/production/_119145857_omar_epa_2.png??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”The Taliban leader is believed to have suffered a shrapnel wound to his right eye in the 1980s” />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> The Taliban leader is believed to have suffered a shrapnel wound to his right eye in the 1980sn u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> EPAn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n n u003cp>According to Afghan intelligence, Mullah Omar dies of health problems at a hospital in the Pakistani city of Karachi. Pakistan denies that he was in the country.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n Nato ends combat operationsn u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>28 December 2014u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>At a ceremony in Kabul, Nato ends its combat operations in Afghanistan. With the surge now over, the US withdraws thousands of troops.  Most of those who remain focus on training and supporting the Afghan security forces.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n Taliban resurgencen u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>2015u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>The Taliban launch a series of suicide attacks, car bombings and other assaults. The parliament building in Kabul, and the city of Kunduz are attacked. Islamic State militants begin operations in Afghanistan.u003c/p>n n n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/10210/production/_119146066_gettyimages-flames.jpg??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”Kabul’s international airport is struck on 10 August 2015″ />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> Kabul’s international airport is struck on 10 August 2015n u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> Gettyn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n Death toll announcementn u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>25 January 2019u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>Afghan President Ashraf Ghani says more than 45,000 members of his country’s security forces have been killed since he became leader in 2014. The figure is far higher than previously thought.u003c/p>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n US signs deal with Talibann u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>29 February 2020u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>The US and the Taliban sign an “agreement for bringing peace” to Afghanistan, in Doha, Qatar. The US and Nato allies agree to withdraw all troops within 14 months if the militants uphold the deal.u003c/p>n n n n u003cfigure class=”figure”>n u003cpicture>n u003cimg class=”figure__img”n src=”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/DB00/production/_119146065_gettyimages_qatar.jpg??v=1.0.202107020951.202107020951″n alt=”The deal lays out a timetable for full withdrawal” />n u003c/picture>n u003cfigcaption class=”figure__figcaption gel-brevier” >n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image captionu003c/span> The deal lays out a timetable for full withdrawaln u003cspan class=”figure__attribution”>n u003cspan class=”off-screen”>Image copyright byu003c/span> Gettyn u003c/span>n u003c/figcaption>n u003c/figure>n n n u003c/div>n n u003cdiv class=”timeline”>n u003cdiv class=”timeline__indicator”>n u003c/div>n u003ch3 class=”timeline__header”>n Date for final withdrawaln u003c/h3>n u003cp class=”timeline__date”>n u003ctime>11 September 2021u003c/time>n u003c/p>n n u003cp>US forces are scheduled to withdraw from Afghanistan by 11 September 2021, exactly 20 years since 9/11. 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Afghanistan?”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”listItem”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”urlLink”,”model”:{“text”:”A year of violence on the road to peace”,”locator”:”https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-56157627″,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”A year of violence on the road to peace”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”The 11 September deadline is the anniversary of the attacks on America in 2001, which killed nearly 3,000 people. “,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”The 11 September deadline is the anniversary of the attacks on America in 2001, which killed nearly 3,000 people. “,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”The attacks were carried out by al-Qaeda, an international jihadist group then based in Afghanistan with the support of the Taliban, who had been in control of the country since the 1990s. 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A US-led coalition invaded Afghanistan later that year to defeat both groups.”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”image”,”model”:{“caption”:”The US air force was still using Bagram earlier this week”,”copyright”:”AFP”,”media”:{“__typename”:”ComponentsImage”,”originalSrc”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/11ACD/production/_119179327_planeafp.jpg”,”iChefRecipe”:”https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/$recipe/cpsprodpb/11ACD/production/_119179327_planeafp.jpg”,”height”:549,”width”:976,”alt”:”A US Air Force transport plane lands at the Bagram Airfield in Bagram on July 1, 2021″,”loading”:”lazy”},”blocks”:[{“type”:”altText”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”A US Air Force transport plane lands at the Bagram Airfield in Bagram on July 1, 2021″,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”rawImage”,”model”:{“height”:549,”width”:976,”locator”:”11ACD/production/_119179327_planeafp.jpg”,”originCode”:”cpsprodpb”,”copyrightHolder”:”AFP”,”originalSrc”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/11ACD/production/_119179327_planeafp.jpg”,”iChefRecipe”:”https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/$recipe/cpsprodpb/11ACD/production/_119179327_planeafp.jpg”}},{“type”:”caption”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”The US air force was still using Bagram earlier this week”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”America now wants to end its longest war with its huge cost in human lives and vast expense, and is leaving security to the Afghan government. “,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”America now wants to end its longest war with its huge cost in human lives and vast expense, and is leaving security to the Afghan government. “,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”Some 2,500-3,500 US troops were thought to be still in Afghanistan until recently and when they depart, fewer than 1,000 American soldiers will remain. As of May there were about 7,000 other coalition troops in Afghanistan but it is believed that most have now left, with Germany and Italy declaring their missions over on Wednesday. “,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”Some 2,500-3,500 US troops were thought to be still in Afghanistan until recently and when they depart, fewer than 1,000 American soldiers will remain. As of May there were about 7,000 other coalition troops in Afghanistan but it is believed that most have now left, with Germany and Italy declaring their missions over on Wednesday. “,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”Meanwhile, a resurgent Taliban, buoyed by the expectation of the foreign withdrawal, has overrun dozens of districts, amid fears that a new civil war could erupt after the departure of foreign forces.”,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”Meanwhile, a resurgent Taliban, buoyed by the expectation of the foreign withdrawal, has overrun dozens of districts, amid fears that a new civil war could erupt after the departure of foreign forces.”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”image”,”model”:{“media”:{“__typename”:”ComponentsImage”,”originalSrc”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/10301/production/_98950366_presentational_grey_line464-nc.jpg”,”iChefRecipe”:”https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/$recipe/cpsprodpb/10301/production/_98950366_presentational_grey_line464-nc.jpg”,”height”:2,”width”:464,”alt”:”Presentational grey line”,”loading”:”lazy”},”blocks”:[{“type”:”altText”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”Presentational grey line”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”rawImage”,”model”:{“height”:2,”width”:464,”locator”:”10301/production/_98950366_presentational_grey_line464-nc.jpg”,”originCode”:”cpsprodpb”,”copyrightHolder”:”BBC”,”originalSrc”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/10301/production/_98950366_presentational_grey_line464-nc.jpg”,”iChefRecipe”:”https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/$recipe/cpsprodpb/10301/production/_98950366_presentational_grey_line464-nc.jpg”}}]}},{“type”:”crosshead”,”text”:”A top target for the Taliban”},{“type”:”image”,”model”:{“media”:{“__typename”:”ComponentsImage”,”originalSrc”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/051C/production/_116580310_lysedoucet21_tr-nc.png”,”iChefRecipe”:”https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/$recipe/cpsprodpb/051C/production/_116580310_lysedoucet21_tr-nc.png”,”height”:340,”width”:1706,”alt”:”Analysis box by Lyse Doucet, chief international correspondent”,”loading”:”lazy”},”blocks”:[{“type”:”altText”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”Analysis box by Lyse Doucet, chief international correspondent”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”rawImage”,”model”:{“height”:340,”width”:1706,”locator”:”051C/production/_116580310_lysedoucet21_tr-nc.png”,”originCode”:”cpsprodpb”,”copyrightHolder”:”BBC”,”originalSrc”:”https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/051C/production/_116580310_lysedoucet21_tr-nc.png”,”iChefRecipe”:”https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/$recipe/cpsprodpb/051C/production/_116580310_lysedoucet21_tr-nc.png”}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”Bagram is a bellwether of what’s to come. This symbol of American military might was once a stronghold of Soviet forces. Now Afghan security forces will soon confront the challenge of securing this sprawling city within a city. “,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”Bagram is a bellwether of what’s to come. This symbol of American military might was once a stronghold of Soviet forces. Now Afghan security forces will soon confront the challenge of securing this sprawling city within a city. “,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”Bagram is vital – in symbolic and strategic ways. Taliban fighters, advancing in districts across the country, have this prize in their sights. Even last October, residents of the town which has swelled all around it told us the Taliban were already in their midst.”,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”Bagram is vital – in symbolic and strategic ways. Taliban fighters, advancing in districts across the country, have this prize in their sights. Even last October, residents of the town which has swelled all around it told us the Taliban were already in their midst.”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”On a recent visit to the base, as the US packed up, we heard how Afghan security forces saw it as a mixed blessing. There’s a wealth of military assets within its walls; but that treasure is a top target for Taliban, not to mention corrupt commanders and others eying this fortune. “,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”On a recent visit to the base, as the US packed up, we heard how Afghan security forces saw it as a mixed blessing. 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Senate report on the CIA’s interrogation of al-Qaeda suspects, including the use of torture, carried out in detention facilities.”,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”Bagram was one of the sites identified in a US Senate report on the CIA’s interrogation of al-Qaeda suspects, including the use of torture, carried out in detention facilities.”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”unorderedList”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”listItem”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”urlLink”,”model”:{“text”:”Bagram ex-detainees say they still bear the scars”,”locator”:”https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-30780635″,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”Bagram ex-detainees say they still bear the scars”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”crosshead”,”text”:”What happens next?”},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”The top US commander in Afghanistan, General Scott Miller, met President Ashraf Ghani to discuss “continued US assistance and co-operation”, the 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Every morning brings fresh reports of overnight fighting, the BBC’s South Asia editor, Jill McGivering, says. Battles between the Taliban and government forces in Herat, Badakhshan, Baghlan and Paktia are all making news.”,”blocks”:[{“type”:”fragment”,”model”:{“text”:”But the militants have continued fighting government forces. Every morning brings fresh reports of overnight fighting, the BBC’s South Asia editor, Jill McGivering, says. Battles between the Taliban and government forces in Herat, Badakhshan, Baghlan and Paktia are all making news.”,”attributes”:[]}}]}}]}},{“type”:”text”,”model”:{“blocks”:[{“type”:”paragraph”,”model”:{“text”:”Some reports suggest June saw some of the worst violence since the arrival of the coalition, with hundreds of lives lost. 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